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Heavy metals assessment of wastewater in peri-urban locations of Faisalabad District
Wastewater disposal is a very important ecological, environmental and social concern in Pakistan because discharge of wastewater is direct into the open sewerage drains, canals, pounds, lakes and rivers without any proper treatment. Faisalabad is the 3rd largest city of Pakistan has population more than 2 million and is well known for having numerous industries pertaining to various sectors. Wastewater of North Western areas of Faisalabad drains into Paharang Drain which eventually discharge into the River Chenab and South Eastern areas drains into Maduana Drain which discharges into Ravi River. Farmers of the countryside mostly use urban municipal wastewater for agricultural purposes because this water has nutrient rich characteristics. Hence, most of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons present in this wastewater which enter into the food chain while irrigation, causing sever health problems to the consumer. For this study, seven locations of Faisalabad including Chakira, Choti 79, Airport, Malkhanwala, Khanowana, Ghutwala and Rasoolpura were selected to assess contaminations in wastewater and analyze the temporal variations in concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons. To estimate the levels of degradation electrical conductivity (EC), reaction (pH), Heavy metal contents particularly Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn) and petroleum hydrocarbons were determined. The results showed that the highest pH was observed at Rasoolpura location, highest EC was observed at Airport location, heavy metals (Ni concentration was highest at Airport location, Mn concentration was highest at Choti 79 location, Zn concentration was highest also at Choti 79 location, Cu was maximum at Rasoolpura location) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was the leading one at Khanowana site.
Index Terms- Faisalabad, Heavy metals, Peri-urban Wastewater