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Using Gelatin-Iron Oxide Nanoplexes as binder and Preservative for Minced Beef Meat
Meat and meat products are rich source of proteins, which serve as a good food for microbial growth. Microbial contamination leads to food spoilage. There are different techniques that have been used for preservation of meat. Colloidal iron (iron nanoparticles) has showed tremendous potential in latest reports as an antibacterial agent due to its regulated size, low toxicity, and strong magnetic nature. Gelatin act as a binding and stabilizing agent. It alters the properties of the nanocomposite and ensuring the long-term durability of the nanoparticles by preventing particle clumping. This method is simple and "green" as it produces no toxic by-products.
Total (n=15) food samples were gathered from bakeries and grocery shops. Food pathogens were isolated and characterized using Gramme staining and routine biochemical testing. Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using Gelatin as stabilizing agent. Characterization of Gelatin-Iron oxide nanoparticles were performed by UV, FTIR, XRD and SEM techniques. The inhibiting effect of Gelatin-iron oxide nanoparticles was investigated using the broth micro-dilution process. The preservative effect of Gelatin-Iron oxide nanoparticles was assessed on 10g minced beef meat, coated with three different concentrations (62.5 µg/mL, 31.2µg/mL and 15.6µg/mL). The meat was stored at 4℃ and 25℃ for 16 days for microbial analysis.
The results demonstrated that, Out of (n=15) food samples, total estimate of positive samples for E. coli was 4 from both bakery and grocery stores, while 3 samples were contaminated with S.aureus and 2 sample indicated the presence of P. aeruginosa. Gelatin-Iron oxide nanoplexes were found to be very efficacious with a lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.5 µg/mL, 31.2µg/mL and 15.6µg/mL against P. aeruginosa, E. coli and S.aureus respectively. The Total Viable Count (TVC) in minced meat specimens was substantially elevated (p<0.05) in the control group throughout the storage days. While TVC in treated samples of meat was under the accepted range of 5*105 according to ICMSF, up to 8 days of storage at 4℃. Similarly, the TVC in meat stored at 25℃, still below this limit up to 6 days. So, it can be concluded that Gelatin-Iron oxide nanoparticles in lower concentration 62.5µg/mL shows maximum potential to sustain the
integrity of minced meat in contrast with other treated specimens. As a result, we suggested minimizing the use of harmful additives for meat preservation.
Index Terms- Gelatin, Iron-Oxide Nanoplexes, Preservative, Beef Meat