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Estimation of Heterosis for morphological and agronomic traits in maize at Hazara Region KP, Pakistan
A study was undertaken to estimate the Heterosis effects in maize at Agricultural Research Station Baffa, Mansehra during 2014 and 2015 to identify combinations expressing high hybrid vigor. The 31 F1 were planted along with their 7 parents during Kharif 2015. The Maximum positive heterosis was shown by Azam x Shaheen (35.1%) for stem girth, Jalal x Kissan (35.7%) for leaf area, Jalal x Kissan (40.0%) for number of cobs plant-1, EV-2 x Shaheen (18.0%) for number of cobs plot-1, EV-2 x Jalal (28.6%) for fresh cobs weight, Sadaf x Shaheen (19.2%) for cob length, Pahari x Sadaf and EV-2 x Shaheen (4.4%) for cob girth, Pahari x Kissan (4.8%) for number of grain rows, Pahari x Sadaf (10.8%) for number of grains row-1, EV-2 x Jalal (33.9%) for plant weight, Azam x Kissan (20.0%) for dry cobs weight, Kissan x Azam (21.7%) for shelling percentage, Sadaf x Jalal (75.5%) for grains weight after shelling and cross of Sadaf x Jalal (4.8%) for dry 100 grains weight. While cross of Kissan x Jalal and Jalal x Kissan showed maximum negative heterosis (-11.6%) for days to germination, Kissan x Jalal and Jalal x Kissan (-11.6%) for days to 50% tasseling, Jalal x Azam (-5.1%) for days to 50% silking, Kissan x EV-2 (-17.9%) for plant height, Sadaf x Shaheen (-15.1%) for internode length, Azam x Sadaf (-4.9%) for ear height, Azam x Kissan (-11.4%) for fresh cobs moisture percentage and cross of EV-2 x Jalal (-13.7%) for dry cobs moisture percentage.
Key Words: Heterosis, Cross, Days, Length, Hight, Weight.