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GENETIC IMPROVEMENT IN YIELD RELATED TRAITS OF WHEAT UNDER IRRIGATED AND RAINFED CONDITIONS
This investigation was performed to study genetic improvement in yield and its components at The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2021-22. Data was recorded on twelve morphological traits. Statistical analysis revealed highly significant differences for all the studied parameters across both environmental conditions. However, genotype by environment interactions were significant for majority of the traits except spike length, spikelet’s spike-1 and grain weight spike-1. Performance of wheat genotypes ranged from 115 to 124 days for days to headings, 154 to 158 days for days to maturity, 85.98 to 88.95 cm for plant height, 268 to 363 for spikes meter-2, 11.25 to 12.65 cm for spike length, 19.70 to 21.05 for spikelet’s spike-1, 39.68 to 50.30 for grains spike-1, 1.34 to 2.19 g for grain weight spike-1, 49.24 to 54.40 g for 1000-grain weight, 9792 to 12783 kg ha-1 for biological yield, 3183 to 5025 kg ha-1 for grain yield and 30.37 to 42.35% for harvest index across both environments. Best performing genotypes were CIM-21 for days to headings, CIM-10, CIM-13, CIM-20, CIM-21 and CIM-23 for days to maturity, CIM-21 for plant height, CIM-23 for spikes m-2, CIM-09 for spike length, CIM-20 and CIM-21 for spikelet’s spike-1, CIM-12 for grains spike-1, CIM-01 for grain weight spike-1, CIM-13 for 1000-grain weight, CIM-01 for biological yield, CIM-01 for grain yield, CIM-08 harvest index under irrigated and rainfed environments, respectively. These results suggested that selection could be delayed to later generations. Wheat genotype CIM-08 was found superior for grain yield and is recommended for irrigated as well as rainfed environmental conditions.
Keywords: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), rain-fed and irrigated conditions, genetic improvement, SAS analysis,