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. Ayesha Riaz╠Ż, Muhammad Farooq Umar and Nabila Farah


Dental caries, a chronic disease is unique among human and is one of the most common important global oral health problems in the world today. It is the destruction of dental hard acellular tissue by acidic by-products from the bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates especially sucrose. It progresses slowly in most of the people which results from an ecological imbalance in the equilibrium between tooth minerals and oral biofilms which is characterized by microbial activity, resulting in fluctuations of pH due to bacterial acid production, buffering action from saliva and the surrounding tooth structure. The microbial community of caries is diverse and contains many facultative and obligate-anaerobic bacteria. Streptococcus mutans is the most primary associated with it. Dental caries can affect the human in various ways i.e. presence of tooth pain, infection or dysfunction of the stomatognathic system can limit the necessary ingestion of foods, affecting the growth in children and adults as well as their learning, communication skills and recreational activities. Moreover, oral and pharyngeal cancers and oral tissue lesions are also significant health concern. Due to this, treatment is needed for dental diseases which cost normally high and is not feasible for all due to limited resources such as time and money. Therefore, prevention is more affordable. Personal hygiene cares and dietary modification should be recommended.

KEYWORDS: Dental caries, Fluoride, Pathogenesis, Streptococcus mutans, Cavernous sinus thrombosis, Oral Biofilm, Prevention.

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