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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF): A Natural Companion of Plants against Biotic Stress; A Review

. Qurat-ul-Ain Waseem, Mudassar Fareed Awan, Sauood Shaheer Siddiqui, Sajed Ali, Eiman Zahid, Muhammad Farhan Sarwar & Irfan Mughal


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a type of dominant obligate symbionts that establish their relationship with roots of the plants. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi have significant roles in the mycorrhizosphere. More or less about 71% of the vascular plant are in microsymbiont associations, where AMF solely relies on host photosynthetic phenomenon. As well as, they induced the tolerance ability of plants against the biotic stresses like viral, fungal, herbivores as well as bacteria. This mechanism involves competition for nutrients, space, rhizosphere alternation and host photosynthates to induce the defense in the host. Moreover, the effectiveness of AMF in tolerating the biotic stresses primarily depends on the interaction between host plant and culture systems through receptors after AMF colonization. This review designates the induced defense mechanism, factors, receptors, their particular functions and pathways that are mediated by AMF to induce tolerance against biotic stresses.   

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; symbiosis; biotic stress; defense; receptors

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