The research aims to determine the disruptive technologies and the challenges to existing arms control regimes. The paper has discussed the emergence of fourth industrial revolution and its military implications. However, the major focus of the research is the impact of counter-space capabilities, AI-based cyberwarfare, and hypersonic weapons on the arms control regime. The study has used the case study of ongoing Russia-Ukraine War where both the parties have used counter-space capabilities and AI-based cyberwarfare. The research indicates that new technologies offer states the potential to increase their capabilities in a wide range of areas, from intelligence gathering to military operations, moreover emerging technologies also pose a risk to international stability, and enable states to act in ways that may be seen as aggressive and destabilizing. This could lead to greater armed conflict and increased risk of miscalculation. Moreover, these technologies have the potential to create an arms race or a situation of unequal power between states. The study has separately discussed the complex challenges of these technologies. Finally, it has suggested potential solutions for mitigating the challenges posed by new technologies.
Keywords: Disruptive Technologies, Regimes, Counter-space, AI-based cyberwarfare, Hypersonic, Arms Race